Working activities might be carried out in the better lit door end, the middle used for sleeping and eating and the end farthest from the door could have been used for grain storage. According to other view, the interior was divided in areas for sleeping, common life and a fenced enclosure at the back end for keeping animals. Ditches went along part of the outer walls, especially at the enclosed end. Their purpose is not known, but they probably are not defensive works, as they were not much of a defense. More likely, the ditches collected waste water and rain water.
A large house with many people and animals would have had to have a drainage system. One can conceive of a smelly end, where the animals and latrines were located, and a domestic end.
Trash was regularly removed and placed in external pits. The waste-producing work, such as hide preparation and flint-working, was done outside the house. Long houses were gathered into villages of five to eight houses, spaced about 20 m apart, occupying — acres. However, the structure remains obscure and interpretational. One long house may have supported one extended family, but the short lifespan would have precluded more than two generations. The houses required too much labor to be the residences of single families; consequently, communal houses are postulated.
At least some villages were fortified for some time with a palisade and outer ditch. Excavations at Oslonki in Poland revealed a large, fortified settlement dating to BC, i. Nearly 30 trapezoidal longhouses and over 80 graves make it one of the richest such settlements in archaeological finds from all of central Europe.
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The rectangular longhouses were between 7 and 45 meters long and between 5 and 7 meters wide. They were built of massive timber posts chinked with wattle and daub mortar. Easy access to fresh water also would have been mandatory, which is another reason why settlements were in bottom lands near water. A number of wells from the times have been discovered, with a log-cabin type lining constructed one layer at a time as the previous layers sank into the well.
An earlier view saw the Linear Pottery culture as living a "peaceful, unfortified lifestyle". Most of the known settlements, however, left no trace of violence. The skull fractures are classic signs of blunt force injuries caused by basic stone age weapons. Pottery has been found in long houses, as well as in graves. Analysis of the home pottery reveals that each house had its own tradition. The occurrence of pottery primarily in female graves indicates the women of the long house probably made the pottery; in fact, lineages have been defined.
Gimbutas goes so far as to assert, "The indirect results indicate an endogamous , matrilocal residence. As is true of all prehistoric cultures, the details of actual belief systems maintained by the Linear Pottery culture population are poorly understood relative to beliefs and religions of historical periods.
The extent to which prehistoric beliefs formed a systematic religious canon is also the subject of some debate. Nevertheless, comparative, detailed, scientific study of cultural artifacts and iconography has led to the proposal of models. The mother goddess model is the major one applied to the Neolithic of the middle and near east, the civilization of the Aegean and Europe. The iconography was inherited from the Palaeolithic. With the transition to the Neolithic, "the female principle continued to predominate the cultures that had grown up around the mysterious processes of birth and generation.
It is reflected in the vase paintings, figurines, graves and grave goods, and surviving customs and myths of Europe. In the north, the goddess could manifest herself as the mistress of animals, grain, distaff and loom, household, and life and death. The works of the noted late archaeologist Marija Gimbutas present a major study of the iconography and surviving beliefs of the European Neolithic, including the Linear Pottery culture.here
Linear Pottery culture
She was able to trace the unity of reproductive themes in cultural objects previously unsuspected of such themes. For example, the burial pits of the Linear Pottery culture, which were lined with stone, clay, or plaster, may have been intended to represent eggs. The deceased returns to the egg, so to speak, there to await rebirth.
The presence of such pits contemporaneously with the burial of women and children under the floors of houses suggests a multiplicity of religious convictions, as does the use of both cremation and inhumation. Some of the figurines are not of females, but are androgynous. Perhaps the beliefs of Europeans of any culture always were complex. The early Neolithic in Europe featured burials of women and children under the floors of personal residences.
Remains of adult males are missing. Probably, Neolithic culture featured sex discrimination in funerary customs, and women and children were important in ideology concerning the home. Burials beneath the floors of homes continued until about BC. However, in the Balkans and central Europe, the cemetery also came into use at about BC. LBK cemeteries contained from 20 to graves arranged in groups that appear to have been based on kinship.
Males and females of any age were included. Both cremation and inhumation were practiced. The inhumed were placed in a flexed position in pits lined with stones, plaster, or clay. Cemeteries were close to, but distinct from, residential areas. The presence of grave goods indicates both a sex and a dominance discrimination. Male graves included stone celts, flint implements, and money or jewelry of Spondylus shells.
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Female graves contained many of the same artifacts as male graves, but also most of the pottery and containers of ochre. The goods have been interpreted as gifts to the departed or personal possessions. This circumstance probably rightly has been interpreted as some sort of distinction in dominance , but the exact nature is not known. If the goods were gifts, then some were more honored than others; if they were possessions, then some were wealthier than others.
These practices are contrasted to mass graves, such as the Talheim Death Pit and the Herxheim archeological site. Below are some relevant links to sites publishing current research or recapitulating recent thinking concerning the Neolithic of Europe. Many of the sites referenced contain links to other sites not mentioned here.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see LBK disambiguation. Not to be confused with Linear A or Linear B. This box: view talk edit. Danube lands near Vienna, by Johann Christian Brand, circa Further information: Stroke-ornamented pottery and Bug-Dniester culture. Main article: Neolithic religion. Bibcode : Sci The numbers are stated in the abstract. Note that figures such as this although true given the parameters depend on data that was selected by the investigator and are best regarded as approximations.
Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, Vol. For the tolerances, see the article. PLOS Biology. Elburg, W. Hein, A. Probst and P. However, they are approximately the same as the numbers given by other researchers and can therefore be taken as true measurements within a tolerance. Retrieved 23 April However, those interested in an immediately available comprehensive view from a Gimbutas supporter may access Marler under External links, Models. Hayden discovers some of the limitations of Gimbutas' thought.
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His view was answered in detail in Marler , External links, Models. The reader should be aware that all of Gimbutas' career was surrounded by controversy, perhaps fueled by sexist allegations and counter-allegations. Nevertheless Marler and Hayden are professionals with something valuable to contribute, as are Renfrew and other protagonists of Gimbutas' ongoing debates.
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Man Makes Himself. Christensen, Jonas Acta Archaeologica. Clark, Grahame ; Piggott, Stuart Prehistoric Societies.
New York: Alfred A. Davidson, Hilda Ellis Roles of the Northern Goddess.
Linear Pottery culture - Wikipedia
Ehrich, Robert W. Chronologies in Old World Archaeology. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Gimbutas, Marija Gimbutas, Marija Hawkes, Jacquetta Hibben, Frank Prehistoric Man in Europe. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.