In practice, however, this takes a specific kind of predicate complement, viz. It is then a matter of whether or not the process is tied up to a controlling agent. In 24 , the spreading of the news enters the realm of the semi-copular change-of-state insofar as it is conceived of as occurring outside the scope of a specific external agent. These paradigmatic alternations indicate that the agent is contextually retrievable. With a deontic modal the passive reading prevails especially when the subject entity itself supposes an agent and a patient argument, e.
The news refl made-3 sg public. Overall, however, the pseudo-copular use with inanimate subject can be analyzed as the ergative counterpart of the causative transitive construction with a predicate complement oriented to the direct object, as the latter occupies the subject position in the corresponding pseudo-copular construction. Examples 30 and 31 corroborate the idea that the very subject entity displays an intrinsic propensity to be the locus of the change profiled by the predicate complement.
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- viejo, -ja.
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While circumstantial factors may incidentally favor or disfavor the process, accelerate it or slow it down, the change is essentially seen as internally driven. The subject is essentially depicted as a self-energetic Experiencer, susceptible of benefitting from impinging forces cf. The degree to which the subject is affected by the change, as well as the degree to which s he contributes to it, highly vary. While 32 , e. My life changed, I became [literally: refl made] a model and later an actress. Yo era un paracaidista.
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Later I became [literally: refl made] a foot soldier against my will and now they want to turn me into a frontier guard. Although the subject entity is not in full control, its involvement in the process goes beyond that of a mere patient. In combination with an infinitival complement clause hacer forms a periphrastic construction, e.
In this semi-auxiliary use, various elements indicate that the relation is a very cohesive one, expressing direct successful causation: the subject of the complement clause Ana falls under the control of the main clause subject, which explains the relative awkwardness of inanimate subjects e. When the nominal has the form of a bare noun, the complex predicate can generally be considered more lexicalized, e.
Interestingly, these expressions single out the way consciously behaving subjects have of positioning themselves, e. Paradoxically, the collocates which fit this paradigm all refer to a state or property one normally cannot control, e.
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The association with hacerse precisely conveys the idea of performing in a purposive and controlled way, similar to role playing. I feigned giving me blows in the head against a wall. In the physical sense it denotes physical objects fitting particular kinds of spaces, e. In the mental sense, it analogously denotes the experience of becoming increasingly acquainted with a specific setting, e.
In the pseudo-copular construction, on the contrary, the compatibility condition holds between the predicate complement and the subject entity; as pseudo-copula, hacerse contributes the aspectual meaning of change while behaving as a linking device, i. A useful guideline in this respect is the functional analogy of pseudo- copulas with clausal predication auxiliaries: they indeed also conform to the strict adjacency condition and convey tense, aspect, mood, person and number. The source semantics of the verb explains that animate subjects tend to be conceived of as quite actively participating in the process.
In many cases, the goal-orientedness is part of the activated frame. It is therefore hard to accommodate hacerse with animate subjects devoid of the internal driving force necessary to reach the resultant state, e. This explains why predicates denoting religious or ideological obedience e. More generally, hacerse is typically used for changes conceived of as physical or psychological corollary of time passing by, i. Unlike the direct transitive constructions, e.
Los pies son la parte del cuerpo que envejece de un modo menos humano. I became [lit. At the same time, however, the pseudo-copular use supposes a process of de-agentivization cf. As shown by the configuration given in Figure 1, hacerse profiles a change in terms of a unidirectional progression horizontal arrow , prototypically conceived of as an ascending movement broken arrow comprising a series of aligned phases squares.
The forward movement supposes that an internal causal force is at work which orients the mobile entity and guides the path traversal all along in a straight fashion. Figure 1: Schematic representation of hacerse as pseudo-copula. On the basis of this account, the features proposed in the literature, viz. They correspond to expectations that can get reinforced or attenuated depending on the context.
However, as can be seen in 48 , 52 and 53 , this is not necessarily the case. While this kind of linearity typically characterizes our view of the course of life 55 , it can also be projected on the internal evolution of a socio-professional trajectory, a life within life so to say, e.
When the predicate complement is nominal, like in 56 , the self-energizing process yields a category change. The latter determine the underlying time scale and allow for highly variable degrees of dynamicity. In other words, neither the time-path nor the force dynamics, understood in its kinesthetic sense, are part of the conceptual image of the pseudo-copular construction with hacerse. Subjects which denote living beings are by definition endowed with a proper life-cycle.
By default, their progression tends to be conceived of as intrinsic to their nature, i. The change-of-state originates in the very subject entity, i. There may, of course, be various ways to qualify the resultant state. Yet, using for example especialista or publicista instead of experto in 56 , does not alter the fact that the change affects the subject entity and not the conceptualizer as such.
Predicate complements which bear an experiential load depict how the subject entity is perceived or felt to change. The construal in 57 , for instance, displays a low degree of subjectivity. As entities with inherent energetic properties are by default conceived of as evolving in time and space, they naturally yield a direct experience of change. It is therefore not necessary to adopt the scene-internal perspective of the event participants to register the increase in force and violence.
By projection onto the perspective of the characters exposed to the wind at the terrace during some time in the narrated world, the awareness of the impinging force may also reflect a gradually augmenting receptivity to it, regardless of whether the wind is striking harder or not.
Meaning of "viejo" in the Spanish dictionary
This ambivalence characterizes the predicate complements which involve sensory experience and, by the same token, give leeway to some subjectively tinged evaluation. Langacker a: Insofar as a subject entity is source of energy, the change event is attributable to it, at least partially. Generally speaking, perceptibility depends on the relation between the conceptualizer and the object of conceptualization.
On the side of the conceptualizer, attention focusing and time of exposure are, of course, crucial. In physical space, however, the perception of a change can additionally correlate with a modification of the relative distance between perceiver and perceived object. Examples such as 58 and 59 illustrate the point.
Yet, the interplay between the dynamicity of the conceptualized object and that of the conceptualizer makes for an interpretive glide which yields a globally coherent view. Consequently, abstraction can be made of a possible modification of the source of the noise; while it is still imaginable, though less probable, that the sea is concurrently becoming less noisy, this gets relegated at the background as irrelevant, insofar as the subjective perspective is foregrounded, at the expense of the objective one.
The same can be observed in the expression of subjective motion. While the object of conceptualization is stationary, e. Various types can be distinguished, viz. They generally combine with second and third order subjects. A priori, these properties can result from a change in the very object of conceptualization as well as from an evolution in the appreciation by the conceptualizer.
This is illustrated in 62 - Analogously, in 63 , the situation may itself get more complex, while concurrently the persons involved may experience a growing sense of complication. Likewise, in 64 , the use of hacerse indicates that at least one facet of change is present; out of context, however, it is undecidable whether the objective and subjective change converge or whether one prevails.
Depending on the nature of the subject entity, the interpretation can be objective 64 , subjective 65 or mixed The change profiled in 67 and 68 , e. According to our analysis, the evidential meaning is given by the predicate complement, and the pseudo-copula keeps its own meaning import, next to that of the predicate complement and of the subject entity. Whether the predicative relation is more or less subjectively construed depends on the left and right collocates the pseudo-copula is associated with. The capacity of hacerse to accommodate to a variety of perspectives, however, does not mean that it takes on the meaning of its predicate complement, nor that it would, in particular, assimilate an evidential meaning.
Insofar as the process reading attached to, e.
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In these cases, it is clear that the perception of a gradual and cumulative progression of a change of state in the subject entity may be only partially due to the subjective perspective of the conceptualizers. Even more straightforwardly than hacer , volver allows for the conceptualization via metaphor of the notion of change at the level of the event structure cf. In order to grasp the conceptual image volverse imposes on the subject-predicate complement relation 4. In its intransitive use, volver indicates a displacement the directionality of which is primarily determined by the point of arrival, the latter being interpreted by default as the starting point of a previous change-of-place of the same entity.
The verb thus profiles a backwards movement. However, the change of direction in space expressed by volver does not always go in the opposite direction to the previous one by default directed forward , but can also be described in terms of diversion, i. In sum, by metaphorical projection, the change profiled by the pseudo-copular verb PCV volverse , conceived as a movement in time, basically represents a transformation in terms of diversion, if not inversion; it thus echoes the notions of return and change of direction which characterize the meaning of lexical volver. In what follows, we will discuss in more detail the conceptual image associated with volverse and illustrate it with a few examples in context.
For the sake of clarity, we distinguish between a interruption and diversion, b polarity inversion, and c disorientation. We therefore consider that volver profiles a break. The relation with an anteriority permits to see the common denominator in the constructions with volverse : what is profiled is an interruption or a half turn not in space but in time and at a symbolic level.
A diminished hearing 72 , a lost virtue 73 , etc. In other words, volverse as PCV evokes a changethat interruptscontinuity in time. No, canturrea otra voz; es Renato What a world!
Figure 2: Schematic representation 1 of volverse as pseudo-copula. We can also think of the metaphor undoing progress is backward movement Lakoff To sum up, volverse can be defined as the PCV of interruption: the break ing off in time is seen as a diversion with respect to the prototypical progress and corresponds to a deviation of some sort often interpreted as a downhill change. At the light of this conceptualization, the features associated with volverse in the literature cf.
Section 2 can be reanalyzed as prototypicality effects, which can get reinforced or attenuated depending on the context. By way of inference based on experiential knowledge, a change conceived in terms of interruption and regression is easily thought of as an undesired, unintended and negatively valued one, the achievement of which is abrupt and unpredictable.
Once again, however, these prototypicality effects reflect ICMs and should not be assimilated to necessary conditions for use.